In the southern part of Colombia and in the territory of Ecuador the Andes are narrowed and consist only of two parts. Coastal disappears, and on her place there is a hilly plain. The central and East Cordilleras in one spine.
The moderate belt of mountains is optimum for life. Because of monotony and moderation of temperature it is a belt of eternal spring. In its limits there lives the part of the population Severnykh Hades, there are largest cities and agriculture is developed. The corn, tobacco and vazhneym'y culture of Colombia a tree are widespread.
Vegetation very poor. Dwarfish bushes, among which the representatives called by Tola why also all landscape of dry Pune is called often Tola prevail. To them some cereals, as, for example, a veynik, a feather grass and various lichens are added. Also cactuses. The salted sites are poorer in plants. On them mainly the wormwood and an efedra grow.
On the origin a zone Poon — altiplano to the median massif consisting of the leveled constructions of Paleozoic age which tested an at the beginning of the Cenozoic and did not undergo in the Neogene to so strong raising as East and the Western Cordilleras.
Active volcanoes also over East Kordilyery Southern Colombia and — this is Kayambe (5790 m), Antisana (5705 m), Tunnuragua (5033 m) and Sanggai (5230 m). cones of these volcanoes with caps of snow represent one of the brightest of the Ecuadorian Andes.
Between two mountain chains of Ecuador the depression with a strip of breaks along which extinct and active volcanoes rise lies. The most of them — Cotopaxi (5897 m) operating and an extinct volcano of Chimborazo (6310 m). In of this tectonic at the height of 2700 m the capital of Ecuador — Quito is located.
Higher than 4500 m in the Northern Andes begin a belt of eternal snow and ice with constantly negative temperature. On massifs of the Andes there are big glaciers of the Alpine type. They are most developed in Sierra-Nevada-de-Santa Marta, the and Western Cordilleras of Colombia. High tops of volcanoes of Tolim, Chimborazo and Cotopaxi are covered with caps of snow and ice. Considerable glaciers are also in a middle part of ridge of Kordilyera-de-Merida.
The natural vegetation is strongly exterminated as in a middle part of Chile there lives almost all population of the country, mainly agriculture. Therefore the most part of lands, convenient for plowing, is occupied of various cultures. For natural vegetation prevalence of thickets of the evergreen bushes reminding Southern Europe or America.
Glaciers and lakes feed a large number of the rivers flowing in Silent and partially into the Atlantic Ocean. Valleys of the rivers are deeply cut in a surface. In certain cases they cross the Andes, and the rivers beginning on east slope, flow into the Pacific Ocean. The rivers are twisting, deep also burna, their valleys usually consist of ozerovidny expansions, narrow rapids sites.
Still to the east, behind the deep valley of the Magdalena River, less high spine East the Cordilleras which is put by strongly folded sedimentary breeds and in the central part extensive basseynoobrazny. In one of them at the height of 2600 m there is a capital of Colombia Bogota.
In seaside part of the Chilean Andes *, with dry summer and in the damp winter. The region of a of this climate covers the coast between 29 and 37 ° SL, the Central valley and the lower parts of the western slopes Main the Cordilleras. In the north transition to semi-deserts, and to the South is planned the increase in rainfall and gradual disappearance of the period of a summer drought mark transition to of oceanic climate of midlatitudes.
Pune occupy huge in the Central Andes. In Peru and Bolivia, especially on coast of Lake Titicaca and in the most damp valleys, they before arrival of were occupied by the cultural Indian people, the state of Inca. Still still the of ancient constructions of Inca paved by stone plates of the road and the remains of irrigating systems remained. In Peru the bottom East the Cordilleras had a ancient city of Cuzco of the Incan state.