If to be guided by rationalization of environmental management for prevention of environmental pollution, it is obvious that in each branch of production and economy there are principles and methods of rationalization. The general for them the system of actions for harmonization of the relations of the nature and equipment is considered.
Forecasting of transfer and dispersion of harmful substances in environments, processes of transformation of these substances under the influence of environment factors (secondary pollution or counter synthesis), i.e. in a broader sense – forecasting of quality of environment. Forecasting is carried out now mainly on the basis of mathematical and machine (including so-called imitating) modeling.
Ecosystems (biogeocenoses) usually turn on two blocks. The first consists of the interconnected organisms of different types and carries the name of a biocenosis, the second block is made by habitat which is called in this case a biotope or an ecotop.
The ecosystem is understood as any community of the living beings and the environment of their dwelling united in the uniform functional whole. The main properties of ecosystems – ability to carry out circulation of substances, to resist to external influences, to make biological production. Allocate usually ecosystems of various rank: microecosystems (a small reservoir, an animal corpse with the organisms occupying it, etc.), mesoecosystems (the wood, a pond, the river, etc.), macroecosystems (the ocean, the continent, a natural zone, etc.) and a global ecosystem – the biosphere in general.
Among insects vyselitelny ability is connected often with emergence of the specific individuals allocated usually in a separate phase, who are characterized by bigger mobility, aspiration to movements. Plant louses, for example, have a phase with well developed wings, at a desert locust, except the best development of the aircraft, mobility increases due to more dark coloring and in this regard the best progrevayemost of a body that for holodnokrovny organisms is the most important factor of strengthening of activity.
For the purpose of creation of conditions for emergence of the younger generation of the wood at continuous cabins such lesovodstvenny receptions as cutting down by consistently small squares (cutting areas) are applied. In that case remaining near. cutting down forest stands are a source of seeds, moderate shading of the appearing younger generation of the wood, an obstacle to the violent growth of competitors from herbs, bushes and undesirable wood plants. Emergence of the younger generation of the wood is promoted also by leaving on cuttings down of the best trees separate, as a rule, which carry out a role of obsemenitel and carry the name of seed plants.
To avoid irreversible negative consequences of environmental management, society began to create system of the actions called nowadays by conservation or environmental protection which also represents set of actions for management, but in a broader sense: it is about management of environmental management.
Any enterprise is intended for release of this or that necessary production. Its activity is also subordinated to this task. However the plant or a farm exist in an environment of the concrete environment – ecological systems which inevitably are affected from production. The neglect a state of environment in interests of economy of means inevitably conducts to negative consequences and for the enterprise. So, as a result of air pollution and water the population can suffer, destruction of recreational ecosystems leads to adverse social effects, the pursuit of cheap raw materials can cause its deficiency. The extensive damage to the enterprise which could be much less if the complex of nature protection measures in due time was accepted will appear a consequence.